Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/10397/5679
Title: 中國社會工作專業化的發展過程研究 : 國家、社會與學術的多元互動 (1978-2006) = A study of the professionalization process of social work in the Chinese mainland : interaction of the state, the society and the academic community (1978-2006)
Authors: Wang, Ying (王嬰)
Keywords: Hong Kong Polytechnic University -- Dissertations
Social service -- China
Issue Date: 2012
Publisher: The Hong Kong Polytechnic University
Abstract: 我的研究是一項有關中國在1978年到2006年期間社會工作專業化發展過程 的研究,主要探討了這一期間中國社會工作專業化發展過程的階段和特徵'以及 "國家" 、"學術" 和 "社會" 的多元互動關係。 我的研究以歷史社會學的視角,以 "社會工作專業化過程" 和 "國家、社會 和學術的張力和多元互動" 兩大概念體系構建了一個研究框架。"社會工作專業 化過程及其發展階段" 的概念體系包含國際社會工作發展的 "前專業化階段" 和 "專業化階段" 的文獻研究與理論解釋,以及對辨認專業社會工作的標準的理 論解釋和使用,以及在我的研究中的操作性定義。"國家、學術和社會的多元互 動" 的概念體系包括了 "國家" 、"社會" 和 "學術" 的學術性解釋以及在的 研究中的操作性定義。 接著,我的研究以歷史社會學的視角並採取了 "過程一事件" 的研究方法, 以關鍵事件為依據,將1978 年到2006年的社會工作發展過程劃分為三個時段 (即1978 -1988, 1989 - 1998 , 及1999 -2006) ,並對過程中五個主要的 "關鍵事 件" 進行了 深入的研究,即: (1)馬甸會議; (2)政府行政主導下的 "專業組 織" 一中國社會工作(者)協會的成立及其非專業的運作; (3)社會工作專業 教育在國際力量的動下形成了面向國際通則發展為主,疏離於國家和社會的 "獨 善其身" 的路徑; (4)社會工作專業教育爆發性增長引出反省及行業自律; (5)地 方性專業社會工作發展的成功經驗以及 "國家" 和 "學術" 聯手促使 "職業水準評價" 的國家制度出臺。
我主要以 "過程一事件" 的方法,因繞著上述三個時段中的五個事件,收集 了相關的歷史文獻,包含政府有關部門的正式丈件、研討會的論文集、關鍵人物 的論文、研究報告和回憶錄、以及34位歷史進程的參與者和觀察者的口述。用 各種資料相互佐證的方式,梳理出歷史進程中的發展軌跡,盡可能地還原其歷史 面貌。以按時序、分階段的 "過程一事件" 描述方式,呈現了中國社會工作專業 化的發展過程。 研究發現:中國社會工作專業化從1978年到2006年的發展過程是一個 "國家" 的 "強勢主導" 和 "學術" 、"社會" 的 "習慣性順從" 的互動過程,這個 過程充滿了中國式的 "非協調" 的發展特徵,並仍然處於 "前專業化階段" "前專業化階段" 的 "非協調" 包括: (1)專業教育發展的非協調一一包括社會 工作發展的理論準備不足, 與社會福利制度安排之間不協調,與社會工作發展之 間不協調; (2)專業組織發展的非協調一一包括沒有專業人員的專業組織,專業 組織的行政化取向,與社會工作實務發展的不協調; (3)職業化發展的非協調一一 包括中國社會職業發展不足, 社會工作沒有被當作一個職業來發展; (4)生存環 境的非協調一包括轉型時期專業服務需求不足,意識形態造成的障礙,社工專 業畢業生無用武之地。 研究進一步發現,中國社會工作發展的上述特徵,是政府把發展社會工作視 為增強 "軟權力" 的手段,強勢主導向原有制度模式中硬性最入專業社會工作的 結果。強勢的 "國家" 主導著一切發展進程,而在社會工作專業化發展過程中的 學術發展和社會工作教育是被動參與並服從安排的。"中國式" 發展過程顯然是 一個不同於一般國際經驗的社會工作專業化的發展路徑。因此,中國式 "前專業 化階段" 與國際經驗也大相徑庭。 不過,在我的研究時期(1978-2006 年)以後, 中國政府強化了構建和諧 社會的主流意識,並在發展空間上開始作出讓渡,使 "學術" 和 "社會" 在專業 社會工作的國家制度、教育體系和實務領域等方面有了更多的參與發展的機會和 主動性。可以認為: 中國社會工作專業化進程正處在一個從不協調逐漸走向協調 的過程中。
The central issue of this dissertation is the professionalization process of social work in the Chinese mainland during the period 1978-2006. The study endeavours to explore and analyze the salient features of this development in different stages in terms of the interaction between the “State", the“society", and the “academic community". Using the “historical sociology" approach as research methodology, this study discloses the dynamics that have enhanced the growth of the social work profession through the interaction among the “State", the “society" and the “academic community". The analytic framework of this study is constructed by the dynamic interplay between two sets of concept systems:“the historical development of the social work profession in stages" and “the tension and interaction among different agents (the State, the society and the academic community) during the process". The first set of concept system refers to the historical development of the social work profession and the evolvement of concepts, standards and practice during the development process; while the second set of concept system refers to the descriptions of these agents and the multi-faceted roles that they have played in the dynamic interaction process. Adopting the “historical sociology" approach and using the method of “process-event" analysis, the study endeavours to describe how social work in the Chinese mainland had gradually evolved into a profession. Using some critical historical events as my foci for study, 1 have divided the developmental process into three stages: 1978-1988, 1989-1998, and 1999-2006. These critical historical events include: 1) the Madian Meeting, which marked the beginning of the involvement of the Ministry of Civil Affairs (MCA) in the professionalization process of social work; 2) the establishment of the China Association of Social Workers (CASW) and its unprofessional approach in its operations; 3) the development of social work education in the Chinese mainland as a relatively isolated system through active promotion by the international social work community; 4) the phenomenal growth of social work education in the country and the subsequent self-ref1ection and self-disciplinary actions taken; and 5) the successful development of social work professional practices in local regions and the joint effort of the State and the academic community in facilitating the pronouncement of the national policy on “assessment of professional standards" in the country.
In my thesis, I have used the “process-event" approach to collect data around the above five critical events. The data collected include: historical literature, govemment documents, conference and seminar proceedings, papers written by key stakeholders, research reports and memoirs, and oral history testimonies of 34 significant persons who have participated in the historical development process. Through critical analysis and triangulation of different sources of data, I have tried to identify the trajectory of the development of social work in the Chinese mainland and have categorized them into different stages of development in a way that can reflect the actual historical process asfar as possible. Through the above mentioned historical review, 1 have discovered that the professionalization of social work in the Chinese mainland during the period 1978 to 2006 was the result of the dynamic interaction between a “strong State" and the “habitual submission" of the “academic community" and “society". I have also found that this process was characterized by “disconnectedness" and that the social work profession in the Chinese mainland was still situated at a “pre-professional" stage of development. The “disconnectedness" was reflected in the following aspects: 1) Disconnectedness between the development of social work education and developments in social work theories, social welfare policies and social work development; 2) Disconnectedness between the development of professional associations, the professional operation of these bodies, and professional practices in the field; 3) Disconnectedness between the professionalization process and the public recognition and status of the profession; and 4) Disconnectedness between the development environment of the profession and the demand for professional services and availability of career development systems and opportunities. The study also discovers that the development of the social work profession in the Chinese mainland was closely correlated with the Govemment's intention to use social work as a means to enhance the “soft power" in the country and to employ intrusive interventions to“embed" social work into the State's existing systems. The State has played a strong leadership role in directing the development process of social work in the Chinese mainland, and the academia and social work sectors had played a submissive role in the process. The “Chinese style" of the development process of the social work profession was obviously unparalleled and drastically different from that of its international counterparts. However, it must be mentioned that immediately after the period of my research study (1978 to 2006), the Chinese Government has strengthened its determination to construct a harmonious society in the country and has given much greater allowance and space for the profession to develop. This has enabled the “academic community" and the “society" to take up a more active role in the development of national policies, education systems and professional practices. In view of such developments, 1 have confidence to assert that the professionalization process of social work is moving from a state of “disconnectedness" towards a greater degree of“connectedness" .
Description: 4, iii, 211, xv p. : ill. ; 30 cm.
PolyU Library Call No.: [THS] LG51 .H577P APSS 2012 Wang
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10397/5679
Rights: All rights reserved.
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