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Title: Three-dimensional flow structure of a non-buoyant jet in a wave-current coexisting environment
Authors: Xu, Z
Chen, Y
Tao, J
Pan, Y
Sowa, DMA
Li, CW 
Keywords: Effluent clouds
Laboratory experiments
Large eddy simulation
Non-buoyant jet
Wave-current coexisting environment
Issue Date: 2016
Publisher: Pergamon Press
Source: Ocean engineering, 2016, v. 116, p. 42-54 How to cite?
Journal: Ocean engineering 
Abstract: The three-dimensional flow structure of a non-buoyant vertical round jet in a wave-current coexisting environment is investigated. Laboratory experiments are first conducted to measure instantaneous flow patterns and mean velocity fields of the jet in a wave-current coexisting environment and a current-only environment for comparison. The distinctive 'effluent clouds' phenomenon is clearly observed in the wave-current coexisting environment but scarcely observed in the current-only environment. Moreover, the mean velocity vectors bend further toward the bottom when the wave effect is present. To reveal a more detailed flow structure of the jet in the wave-current coexisting environment, a large eddy simulation (LES) model is developed and validated against the experimental data. The mechanisms of formation and development of 'effluent clouds' are unravelled based on in-depth analysis of the vorticity contours and the high-pass filtered flow fields on the vertical symmetrical plane. With the variation of instantaneous jet-to-current velocity ratio, the 'effluent clouds' dynamically interact with the current-induced counter-rotating vortex pair (CVP), resulting in an inverted pear-shaped distribution of mean flow field above the CVP structure centre. This study highlights that the existence of 'effluent clouds' can lead to a significant enhancement of jet spread and dilution in the wave-current coexisting environment.
ISSN: 0029-8018
DOI: 10.1016/j.oceaneng.2016.02.022
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