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Title: Selling to strategic and loss-averse consumers : stocking, procurement, and product design policies
Authors: Lee, CH
Choi, TM 
Cheng, TCE 
Keywords: Agile supply chain
Bounded rationality
Marketing-operations interface
S-shaped loss-averse utility
Strategic and loss-averse consumer behavior
Issue Date: 2015
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Source: Naval research logistics, 2015, v. 62, no. 6, p. 435-453 How to cite?
Journal: Naval research logistics 
Abstract: Motivated by the presence of loss-averse decision making behavior in practice, this article considers a supply chain consisting of a firm and strategic consumers who possess an S-shaped loss-averse utility function. In the model, consumers decide the purchase timing and the firm chooses the inventory level. We find that the loss-averse consumers' strategic purchasing behavior is determined by their perceived gain and loss from strategic purchase delay, and the given rationing risk. Thus, the firm that is cognizant of this property tailors its inventory stocking policy based on the consumers' loss-averse behavior such as their perceived values of gain and loss, and their sensitivity to them. We also demonstrate that the firm's equilibrium inventory stocking policy reflects both the economic logic of the traditional newsvendor inventory model, and the loss-averse behavior of consumers. The equilibrium order quantity is significantly different from those derived from models that assume that the consumers are risk neutral and homogeneous in their valuations. We show that the firm that ignores strategic consumer's loss-aversion behavior tends to keep an unnecessarily high inventory level that leads to excessive leftovers. Our numerical experiments further reveal that in some extreme cases the firm that ignores strategic consumer's loss-aversion behavior generates almost 92% more leftovers than the firm that possesses consumers' loss-aversion information and takes it into account when making managerial decisions. To mitigate the consumer's forward-looking behavior, we propose the adoption of the practice of agile supply chain management, which possesses the following attributes: (i) procuring inventory after observing real-time demand information, (ii) enhanced design (which maintains the current production mix but improves the product performance to a higher level), and (iii) customized design (which maintains the current performance level but increases the variety of the current production line to meet consumers' specific demands). We show that such a practice can induce the consumer to make early purchases by increasing their rationing risk, increasing the product value, or diversifying the product line.
ISSN: 0894-069X
EISSN: 1520-6750
DOI: 10.1002/nav.21643
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