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Title: Endurance-Aware Allocation of Data Variables on NVM-Based Scratchpad Memory in Real-Time Embedded Systems
Authors: Wang, Z
Gu, Z
Yao, M
Shao, Z 
Keywords: Non-volatile memory
Real-time embedded
Scratchpad memory
Issue Date: 2015
Publisher: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
Source: IEEE transactions on computer-aided design of integrated circuits and systems, 2015, v. 34, no. 10, 7086044, p. 1600-1612 How to cite?
Journal: IEEE transactions on computer-aided design of integrated circuits and systems 
Abstract: Nonvolatile memory (NVM) has many benefits compared to the traditional static RAM, such as improved reliability and reduced power consumption, but it has long write latency and limited write endurance. Scratchpad memory (SPM) is software-managed small on-chip memory for improving system performance and predicability. We consider SPM based on spin-transfer torque RAM, a type of NVM with high performance and good endurance. We present algorithms for allocating data variables to SPM and distribute write activity evenly in the SPM address space, in order to achieve wear-leveling and prolong the lifetime of NVM. We present two optimization algorithms for minimizing system CPU utilization subject to NVM lifetime constraints: 1) an optimal algorithm based on ILP and 2) an efficient heuristic algorithm that can obtain close-to-optimal solutions.
ISSN: 0278-0070 (print)
1937-4151 (online)
DOI: 10.1109/TCAD.2015.2422846
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