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Title: Surface plasmon polariton cross-coupling enhanced forward emission from insulator-metal-capped ZnO films
Authors: Lei, DY 
Zhang, L
Ong, HC
Keywords: Cross-coupling
Momentum matching
Surface plasmon polariton
ZnO film
Issue Date: 2015
Publisher: American Chemical Society
Source: ACS applied materials and interfaces, 2015, v. 7, no. 42, p. 23496-23500 How to cite?
Journal: ACS applied materials and interfaces 
Abstract: Increasing light extraction efficiency in the forward direction is being extensively pursued due to its crucial role in realizing top-emitting organic and inorganic light emitting devices. Various surface plasmon polariton (SPP)-based strategies for emission enhancement and light extraction have been developed to improve the top-emitting efficiency of these devices. However, the role of surface roughness of both semiconductor film and metal electrode in improving the emission efficiency of a practical device has not been thoroughly studied yet. In this work, the influence of surface roughness of a top metal electrode on the photoluminescence enhancement of a ZnO thin film is investigated experimentally and numerically based on an insulator-metal-semiconductor system. It is found that the generic surface roughness of the metal electrode plays an encouraging role in increasing the forward-emission intensity by facilitating cross-coupling of SPPs on the two opposite sides of the metal layer. More importantly, the forward emission can be further enhanced by capping a high-index polymer layer on the metal electrode to bridge the momentum mismatch between the two SPPs modes. The experimental observations are well explained by the SPPs cross-coupling mechanism that models the radiation power of a dipolar emitter underneath the metal electrode as a function of the metal surface roughness. Our work opens up the possibility of using cross-coupling of SPPs as an effective means to fabricate high-brightness top-emitting devices without the need of complicated nanoscale patterning.
ISSN: 1944-8244
EISSN: 1944-8252
DOI: 10.1021/acsami.5b05871
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