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Title: Psychometric evaluation of the Chinese version of the subjective happiness scale : evidence from the Hong Kong Family Cohort
Authors: Nan, HR
Ni, MY
Lee, PH 
Tam, WWS
Lam, TH
Leung, GM
McDowell, I
Keywords: Subjective Happiness Scale
Construct validity
Family study
Public health
Issue Date: 2014
Publisher: Springer
Source: International journal of behavioral medicine, 2014, v. 21, no. 4, p. 646-652 How to cite?
Journal: International journal of behavioral medicine 
Abstract: With China's rapid economic growth in the past few decades, there is currently an emerging focus on happiness. Cross-cultural validity studies have indicated that the four-item Subjective Happiness Scale (SHS) has high internal consistency and stable reliability. However, the psychometric characteristics of the SHS in broader Chinese community samples are unknown. We evaluated the factor structure and psychometric properties of the SHS in the Hong Kong general population. The Chinese SHS was derived using forward-backward translation. Of the Cantonese-speaking participants aged a parts per thousand yen15 years, 2,635 were randomly selected from the random sample component of the FAMILY Cohort, a territory-wide cohort study in Hong Kong. In addition to the SHS, a single-item overall happiness scale, the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), the Family Adaptation, Partnership, Growth, Affection, Resolve (APGAR) scale, and the Medical Outcomes Study 12-item short-form version 2 (SF-12) mental and physical health scales were administered. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses supported a single factor with high loadings for the four SHS items. Multiple group analyses indicated factor invariance across sex and age groups. Cronbach's alpha was 0.82, and 2-week test-retest reliability (n = 191) was 0.70. The SHS correlated significantly with single-item overall happiness (Spearman's rho [rho] = 0.57), Family APGAR (rho = 0.26), PHQ-9 (rho = -0.34), and mental health-related quality of life (rho = 0.40) but showed a lower correlation with physical health (rho = 0.15). A regression model that included the PHQ-9 and Family APGAR scores explained 37 % of the variance in SF-12 mental health scores; adding the SHS raised the variance explained to 41 %. Our results support the reliability and validity of the SHS as a relevant component in the measurement battery for mental well-being in a Chinese general population.
ISSN: 1070-5503 (print)
1532-7558 (online)
DOI: 10.1007/s12529-014-9389-3
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