Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/10397/36343
Title: Development of Six Arts, a culturally appropriate multimodal nonpharmacological intervention in Dementia
Authors: Wong, GHY
Ng, CKM
Lai, CKY 
Lee, MNY
Lum, TYS
Jiang, N
Shie, HWH
Wu, JYM
Dai, DLK
Keywords: Dementia
Cultural competence
Nonpharmacological Intervention
Six Arts
Issue Date: 2015
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Source: Gerontologist, 2015, v. 55, no. 5, p. 865-874 How to cite?
Journal: Gerontologist 
Abstract: Purpose: There is accumulating evidence for the efficacy of nonpharmacological multimodal stimulation interventions in maintaining cognition and improving quality of life in people with mild-to-moderate dementia. However, the complex nature of these interventions limits their application in practice and research. We report here the design and development of a culturally appropriate framework, the Six Arts, to guide delivery of multimodal interventions in a Chinese community. Design and Development: The Six Arts are a core set of Confucian philosophy comprising 6 disciplines of rites, music, archery, charioteering, literacy, and numeracy. They correspond to major mind-body functional domains of social functioning; music and rhythm; visuospatial and fine motor skills; kinesthetic and gross motor skills; language and verbal skills; and executive function. Using Six Arts as a framework, we mapped theoretical principles and evidence-based nonpharmacological interventions of cognitive stimulation, physical exercise, and social activities against the 6 functional domains. From 2011, we field-tested the use of Six Arts in structuring intervention programs in 263 people in a dementia day center in Hong Kong.
Results: The Six Arts was operationalized through the development of an intervention activity database, a scoring system for intensity level, and a service delivery model for application in dementia day centers. Implications: Six Arts can be used as framework for structuring nonpharmacological group intervention programs in dementia day center in a metropolitan Chinese city. Its cultural appropriateness may facilitate communication and shared decision making with families with dementia in communities influenced by Confucian philosophy.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10397/36343
ISSN: 0016-9013 (print)
1758-5341 (online)
DOI: 10.1093/geront/gnu102
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