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Title: Characterization of isotropic damage using double scalar variables
Authors: Tang, CY 
Shen, W
Peng, LH
Lee, TC
Keywords: Isotropic damage
Double scalar damage variables
Damage influence tensor
damage parameter
Specific damage energy release rate
Issue Date: 2002
Publisher: SAGE Publications
Source: International journal of damage mechanics, 2002, v. 11, no. 1, p. 3-25 How to cite?
Journal: International journal of damage mechanics 
Abstract: In this study, double scalar damage variables have been used to characterize the state of isotropic damage. The damage influence tensorrelating to the double scalar damage variables of damaged material isthus formulated based on the hypothesis of stress equivalence for this model. The specific damage energy release rate is adopted to represent the thermodynamics force conjugating to the double damage variables. Based on the irreversibility laws of thermodynamics, these forceshave been formulated directly from the degradation of effective engineering elastic coefficients in stress space. The contribution of bothdilatation and distortion of material to the specific damage energy density release rate in loading process has been explained. The doublescalar damage variables of isotropic solid material with penny-shape cracks and spherical voids randomly distributed have been determined on the basis of the micro-mechanics theory, respectively. In addition, the damage influence tensor and the specific damage energy release rate were obtained by using the experimental results of pre-strained aluminum alloy 2024T3 specimens under uni-axial tension tests.
ISSN: 1056-7895
EISSN: 1530-7921
DOI: 10.1106/105678902023194
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