Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/10397/34564
Title: Multipathway risk assessment on disinfection by-products of drinking water in Hong Kong
Authors: Lee, SC 
Guo, H 
Lam, SMJ
Lau, SLA
Keywords: Multi-pathway
Oral ingestion
Dermal absorption
Inhalation
Risk assessment
Issue Date: 2004
Publisher: Elsevier
Source: Environmental research, 2004, v. 94, no. 1, p. 47-56 How to cite?
Journal: Environmental research
Abstract: The lifetime cancer risk and the hazard index of trihalomethanes (THMs) through oral ingestion, dermal absorption, and inhalation exposure from tap water in 19 districts in Hong Kong are estimated. The most dominant THMs are chloroform and bromodichloromethane (BDCM) in Hong Kong tap water. Among the three different pathways, residents have a higher risk of cancer through oral ingestion than through the other two pathways. The lifetime cancer risks through oral ingestion anddermal absorption for BDCM make the highest percentage contribution (59%) to total risks, followedby chloroform (24%). The chloroform andBDCM are at or above the negligible risk level of 106 by a factor of 10 or more in most districts. Among the 19 districts, people living in Sai Kung have the highest risk of cancer due to the THM exposure through the multipathways, mainly because of the exposure to BDCM and dibromochloromethane (DBCM). The total cancer risk analysis indicates that each year approximately 10 out of the seven million Hong Kong residents could get cancer from the daily intake of water.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10397/34564
ISSN: 0013-9351
DOI: 10.1016/S0013-9351(03)00067-7
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