Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/10397/33446
Title: Comparison of engineering costs of raw freshwater, reclaimed water and seawater for toilet flushing in Hong Kong
Authors: Tang, SL
Yue, DPT
Li, XZ
Keywords: Cost
Dual water supply
Economic appraisal
Engineering economy
Hong Kong
Raw freshwater
Raw water
Reclaimed water
Seawater
Toilet flushing
Issue Date: 2006
Publisher: Wiley-Blackwell
Source: Water and environment journal, 2006, v. 20, no. 4, p. 240-247 How to cite?
Journal: Water and environment journal 
Abstract: Hong Kong is one of the very few coastal cities in the world that use 'dual water supply systems'. Dual water supply involves two distribution systems: a freshwater system for potable use and a seawater system for toilet flushing. This study looks into the feasibility, from an engineering cost point of view, of extending seawater supply into districts where potable water is still being used for toilet flushing, including South District of Hong Kong Island, Sai Kung, Northern New Territories and Northwest New Territories. Besides seawater, raw (untreated) freshwater and reclaimed water (treated effluent from local sewage treatment works) are also considered to be used for toilet flushing for these districts. Six cases are developed for comparison by using the lowest net present value of cost criterion. The result shows that using seawater for toilet flushing in these districts has the best engineering economy.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10397/33446
ISSN: 1747-6585
EISSN: 1747-6593
DOI: 10.1111/j.1747-6593.2006.00036.x
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