Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/10397/3310
Title: Promoting the conversion of ruthenium aqua to ruthenium oxo complexes with specially designed ancillary ligands
Authors: Cheung, Kwong-chak
Keywords: Hong Kong Polytechnic University -- Dissertations
Ruthenium
Electrocatalysis
Issue Date: 2004
Publisher: The Hong Kong Polytechnic University
Abstract: Ruthenium oxo complexes are important intermediates in ruthenium-catalyzed oxidation reactions such as epoxidation of alkenes, oxidation of hydrocarbons and the oxidation of water to dioxygen. The electrochemical interconversion of ruthenium aqua and ruthenium oxo species has been a subject of extensive interest in the past two decades. By generating the ruthenium oxo complexes electrochemically, oxidation reactions can be achieved under electrocatalytic conditions with catalysts recycled in-situ on the electrode surface. However, the electrochemical oxidation of ruthenium aqua to oxo species is kinetically slow on electrode surface. The objective of this project is to promote the electrochemical conversion of Ru-OH₂ to Ru=O through specially designed ancillary ligands of the metal complexes. In the first part of this study, a new electropolymerizable pyrrole-containing ruthenium complex [Ru(tpy)(PPP)(H₂O)](ClO₄)₂ (PPP = N-(3-N,N'-bis(2-pyridyl)propylamino) pyrrole) was prepared. The structure of the ruthenium complex [Ru(tpy)(PPP)(Cl)](ClO₄) has been confirmed by X-ray crystallography. The ruthenium monomer can be electropolymerized onto glassy carbon electrode surface via anodic oxidation of the pyrrole function group in aqueous medium. This is the first example of a pyrrole-containing ruthenium aqua complex that can be electropolymerized in aqueous medium. It is believed that by placing the ruthenium centres close to each other in the polymer film on the electrode surface, interaction between the Ruᶦᶦᶦ-OH moieties (which are eletrogenerated from Ruᶦᶦ-OH₂) is facilitated. This interaction should assist the deprotonation of the hydroxo ligand in the further oxidation of Ruᶦᶦᶦ-OH to Ruᶦᵛ=O. The generation of Ruᶦᵛ=O species can be easily observed in the cyclic voltammograms.
In the second part of the thesis, the X-ray structure of two ruthenium aqua complexes containing 6,6'-dichloro-2,2'-bipyridine (dcbpyt), cis-[Ru(dcbpy)₂(H₂O)₂](CF₃SO₃)₂ and [Ru(tpy)(bpy)(H₂O)](CF₃SO₃)₂ were reported. The cyclic voltammograms of these two complexes show that the oxidation of Ru-OH to Ru=O is much more facile than the analogues without the chloro-substituents. On comparing the structure of these complexes with analogues without the chloro-substituents, it is anticipated that intramolecular hydrogen bonding exists between the chloro-substituent at the ortho-position of the bipyridine ligand and the hydrogen of the aqua ligand on the ruthenium centre. It is suggested that the intramolecular hydrogen bonding facilitates the deprotoriation of the hydroxo ligand during the oxidation of Ru-OH to Ru=O. In the third part of the thesis, the synthesis of two novel binuciear ligands N,N,N'N'-tetra(2-pyridyl) ethylenediamine (ETHPY) and 1,8-bis(2,2'-dipyridylamino)anthracerie (BDPAA) and their ruthenium aqua complexes were reported. The structure of the ruthenium binuclear complex [Ru₂(tpy)₂(ETHPY)(CH₃CN)₂]⁴⁺ has been confirmed by X-ray crystallography. The O=Ruᶦᵛ-Ruᶦᵛ=OH/ HO-Ruᶦᶦᶦ-Ruᶦᶦᶦ-OH couple is only observed in the cyclic voltammogram of [Ru₂(tpy)₂(ETHPY)(H₂O)₂]⁴⁺ but not [Ru₂(tpy)₂(BDPAA)(H₂O)₂]⁴⁺. It is proposed that the flexibility of the ethylene bridge in [Ru₂(tpy)₂(ETHPY)(H₂O)₂]⁴⁺ facilitates the interaction of Ru-OH moieties and hence promotes the conversion of Ru-OH₂ to Ru=O.
Description: ix, 233 leaves : ill. ; 30 cm.
PolyU Library Call No.: [THS] LG51 .H577P ABCT 2004 Cheung
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10397/3310
Rights: All rights reserved.
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