Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/10397/32589
Title: Impedance analysis of secondary phases in a co-implanted ZnO single crystal
Authors: Younas, M
Zou, LL
Nadeem, M
Naeem-Ur-Rehman
Su, SC
Wang, ZL
Anwand, W
Wagner, A
Hao, JH 
Leung, CW 
Lortz, R
Ling, FCC
Issue Date: 2014
Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry
Source: Physical chemistry chemical physics, 2014, v. 16, no. 30, p. 16030-16038 How to cite?
Journal: Physical chemistry chemical physics 
Abstract: Co ions with 100 keV energy with a fluence of 1 × 1015 cm-2 are implanted into ZnO(0001) single crystals at 300 °C under vacuum. The resulting Co-implanted ZnO single crystals and the subsequent 750 °C and 900 °C annealed samples are analysed with respect to their structural, optical, electronic, magnetic and ac electrical properties. Photoluminescence and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results indicate the signatures of the Co2+ state and its substitution at the tetrahedrally coordinated Zn-sites. X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy identify the presence of the ZnCo2O4 and Co3O4 phases in the 900 °C annealed sample. By comparing the resistance response of the identified phases towards different magnetic environments, the impedance spectroscopy results successfully identify two magnetic phases (ZnCo2O4 and Co3O 4) and a paramagnetic (CoZn) phase for the 750 °C and 900 °C annealed samples, implying the extrinsic nature of room temperature ferromagnetism. The observed ferromagnetism in each sample is not of single origin, instead the mutual effects of the secondary phases embedded in the paramagnetic host matrix are in competition with each other. This journal is
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10397/32589
ISSN: 1463-9076
EISSN: 1463-9084
DOI: 10.1039/c4cp00951g
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