Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/10397/32354
Title: A 3-dimensional finite element model of the human foot and ankle for insole design
Authors: Cheung, JTM
Zhang, M 
Keywords: Ankle
Finite element analysis
Foot
Pressure
Rehabilitation
Issue Date: 2005
Publisher: W.B. Saunders
Source: Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation, 2005, v. 86, no. 2, p. 353-358 How to cite?
Journal: Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation 
Abstract: Objective: To investigate the effect of material stiffness of flat and custom-molded insoles on plantar pressures and stress distribution in the bony and ligamentous structures during balanced standing. Design: A 3-dimensional (3-D) finite element model of the human ankle-foot complex and a custom-molded insole were developed from 3-D reconstruction of magnetic resonance images and surface digitization. The distal tibia and fibula, together with 26 foot bones and 72 major ligaments and the plantar fascia, were embedded in a volume of soft tissues. Setting: Computational laboratory in a rehabilitation engineering center. Participant: A healthy man in his mid twenties (weight, 70kg). Interventions: Not applicable. Main Outcome Measures: Foot-support interfacial pressure, von Mises stress in bony structures, and strain of the plantar fascia were predicted using the finite element model. Results: A custom-molded, soft (Young modulus, E=0.3MPa) insole reduced the peak plantar pressure by 40.7% and 31.6% at the metatarsal and heel region, respectively, compared with those under a flat, rigid (E=1000MPa) insole. Meanwhile, a 59.7% increase in the contact area of the plantar foot was predicted with a corresponding peak plantar pressure increase of 22.2% in the midfoot. Conclusions: The finite element analysis implies that the custom-molded shape is more important in reducing peak plantar pressure than the stiffness of the insole material.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10397/32354
ISSN: 0003-9993
EISSN: 1532-821X
DOI: 10.1016/j.apmr.2004.03.031
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