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Title: Three-dimensional numerical simulations of cross-flow around four cylinders in an in-line square configuration
Authors: Lam, K
Zou, L
Keywords: Aspect ratio
Four cylinders
Spacing ratio
Issue Date: 2010
Publisher: Academic Press
Source: Journal of fluids and structures, 2010, v. 26, no. 3, p. 482-502 How to cite?
Journal: Journal of fluids and structures 
Abstract: This paper presents a numerical study of three-dimensional (3-D) laminar flow around four circular cylinders in an in-line square configuration. The investigation focuses on effects of spacing ratio (L/D) and aspect ratio (H/D) on 3-D flow characteristics, and the force and pressure coefficients of the cylinders. Extensive 3-D numerical simulations were performed at Reynolds number of 200 for L/D from 1.6 to 5.0 at H/D=16 and H/D from 6 to 20 at L/D=3.5. The results show that the 3-D numerical simulations have remedied the inadequacy of 2-D simulations and the results are in excellent agreement with the experimental results. The relation between 3-D flow patterns and pressure characteristics around the four cylinders is examined and discussed. The critical spacing ratio for flow pattern transformation was found to be L/D=3.5 for H/D=16, while a bistable wake pattern was observed at L/D=1.6 for the same aspect ratio. Moreover, a transformation of flow pattern from a stable shielding flow pattern to a vortex shedding flow pattern near the middle spanwise positions of the cylinders was observed and was found to be dependent on the aspect ratio, spacing ratio, and end wall conditions. Due to the highly 3-D nature of the flows, different flow patterns coexist over different spanwise positions of the cylinders even for the same aspect ratio. It is concluded that spacing ratio, aspect ratio, and the no-slip end wall condition have important combined effects on free shear layer development of the cylinders and hence have significant effects on the pressure field and force characteristics of the four cylinders with different spacing ratios and aspect ratios.
ISSN: 0889-9746
EISSN: 1095-8622
DOI: 10.1016/j.jfluidstructs.2010.01.001
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