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Title: Continuous observations of water-soluble ions in PM2.5 at Mount Tai (1534 ma.s.l.) in central-eastern China
Authors: Zhou, Y
Wang, T 
Gao, X
Xue, L
Wang, X
Wang, Z
Gao, J
Zhang, Q
Wang, W
Issue Date: 2009
Source: Journal of atmospheric chemistry, 2009, v. 64, no. 2-3, p. 107-127
Abstract: Near real-time measurements of PM2.5 ionic compositions were performed at the summit of the highest mountain in the central-eastern plains in the spring and summer of 2007 in order to characterize aerosol composition and its interaction with clouds. The average concentrations of total water soluble ions were 27.5 and 36.7 μgm-3, accounting for 44% and 62% of the PM2.5 mass concentration in the spring and summer, respectively. A diurnal pattern of SO2- 4, NH+ 4 and NO- 3 was observed in both campaigns and attributed to the upslope/downslope transport of air mass and the development of the planetary boundary layer (PBL). The average SO2 oxidation ratio (SOR) in summer was 57% (±27%), more than twice that in spring 24% (±16%); the fine nitrate oxidation ratio (NOR) was comparable in the two seasons (9±6% and 11±10% in summer and spring, respectively). This result indicates strong summertime production of sulfate aerosol. A principal component analysis shows that short-range and long-range transport of pollution, cloud processing, and crustal source were the main factors affecting the variability of the measured ions (and other trace gases and aerosols) at Mt. Tai. Strong indications of biomass burning were observed in summer. Cloud scavenging rates showed larger variations for different ions and in different cloud events. The elevated concentrations of the water soluble ions at Mt. Tai indicate serious aerosol pollution over the North China plain of eastern China.
Keywords: Biomass burning
Cloud scavenging
Fine aerosol
North China Plain
Real-time measurements
Journal: Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry 
ISSN: 0167-7764
DOI: 10.1007/s10874-010-9172-z
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