Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/10397/30079
Title: Real-world emission factors of fifteen carbonyl compounds measured in a Hong Kong tunnel
Authors: Ho, KF
Ho, SSH
Cheng, Y
Lee, SC 
Yu, JZ
Keywords: Carbonyl compounds
Tunnel
Emission factor
Ozone formation
Hong Kong
Issue Date: 2007
Publisher: Pergamon Press
Source: Atmospheric environment, 2007, v. 41, no. 8, p. 1747-1758 How to cite?
Journal: Atmospheric environment 
Abstract: Real-world vehicle emissions of carbonyls were determined in summer and winter of 2003 at the Shing Mun Tunnel, Hong Kong. Fifteen carbonyl species have been analyzed in this study. The total measured carbonyls emission factors ranged from 21.7 to 68.9 mg veh−1 km−1 among different measurement periods, with an average of 35.8±11.9 mg veh−1 km−1. Higher carbonyl emissions were found to be associated with a high proportion of diesel-fueled vehicles. Total measured carbonyl emissions from Diesel-fueled Vehicle (DV, 71.5 mg veh−1 km−1) were about 7 times higher than those from Non-Diesel-fueled Vehicle (NDV, 10 mg veh−1 km−1). The five carbonyls with the largest DV emission factor were, in decreasing order, formaldehyde (38.3 mg veh−1 km−1), acetaldehyde (11.4 mg veh−1 km−1), acetone (5.3 mg veh−1 km−1), crotonaldehyde (5.2 mg veh−1 km−1) and benzaldehyde (2.0 mg veh−1 km−1). These five carbonyl compounds together accounted for 87% of the sum of all DV carbonyl emission factors. For NDV, the five most abundant carbonyls in NDV emission at the tunnel were, in decreasing order, formaldehyde (3.5 mg veh−1 km−1), acetone (1.8 mg veh−1 km−1), methyl ethyl ketone (1.6 mg veh−1 km−1), m,p-tolualdehyde (1.0 mg veh−1 km−1) and acetaldehyde (mg veh−1 km−1). They accounted for 85% of the sum of all NDV carbonyl emission factors.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10397/30079
ISSN: 1352-2310
EISSN: 1873-2844
DOI: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2006.10.027
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