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Title: In vivo characterization of the effects of human hemokinin-1 and human hemokinin-1(4-11), mammalian tachykinin peptides, on the modulation of pain in mice
Authors: Fu, CY
Zhao, YL
Dong, L
Chen, Q
Ni, JM
Wang, R
Keywords: A competitive antagonist at GABAA receptors
Human HK-1 and its truncated form h HK-1(4-11)
Opioid receptors antagonists
SR140333 and SR48968
Issue Date: 2008
Publisher: Academic Press Inc Elsevier Science
Source: Brain, behavior, and immunity, 2008, v. 22, no. 6, p. 850-860 How to cite?
Journal: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity 
Abstract: Human hemokinin-1 (h HK-1) and its truncated form h HK-1(4-11) are mammalian tachykinin peptides encoded by the recently identified TAC4 gene in human, and the biological functions of these peptides have not been well investigated. In the present study, an attempt has been made to investigate the effects and mechanisms of action of h HK-1 and h HK-1(4-11) in pain modulation at the supraspinal level in mice using the tail immersion test. Intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of h HK-1 (0.3, 1, 3 and 6 nmol/mouse) produced a dose- and time-related antinociceptive effect. This effect was significantly antagonized by the NK1 receptor antagonist SR140333, but not by the NK2 receptor antagonist SR48968, indicating that the analgesic effect induced by i.c.v. h HK-1 is mediated through the activation of NK1 receptors. Interestingly, naloxone, β-funaltrexamine and naloxonazine, but not naltrindole and nor-binaltorphimine, could also block the analgesic effect markedly, suggesting that this effect is related to descending μ opioidergic neurons (primary μ1 subtype). Human HK-1(4-11) could also induce a dose- and time-dependent analgesic effect after i.c.v. administration, however, the potency of analgesia was less than h HK-1. Surprisingly, SR140333 could not modify this analgesic effect, suggesting that this effect is not mediated through the NK1 receptors like h HK-1. SR48968 could modestly enhance the analgesic effect induced by h HK-1(4-11), indicating that a small amount of h HK-1(4-11) may bind to NK2 receptors. Furthermore, none of the opioid receptor (OR) antagonists could markedly block the analgesia of h HK-1(4-11), suggesting that the analgesic effect is not mediated through the descending opioidergic neurons. Blocking of δ ORs significantly enhanced the analgesia, indicating that δ OR is a negatively modulatory factor in the analgesic effect of h HK-1(4-11). It is striking that bicuculline (a competitive antagonist at GABAA receptors) effectively blocked the analgesia induced by h HK-1(4-11), suggesting that this analgesic effect is mediated through the descending inhibitory GABAergic neurons. The novel mechanism involved in the analgesic effect of h HK-1(4-11), which is different from that of h HK-1, may pave the way for a new strategy for the investigation and control of pain.
DOI: 10.1016/j.bbi.2007.12.010
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