Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/10397/29377
Title: Dicarboxylic acids, ketocarboxylic acids and dicarbonyls in the urban roadside area of Hong Kong
Authors: Ho, KF
Lee, SC 
Cao, JJ
Kawamura, K
Watanabe, T
Cheng, Y
Chow, JC
Keywords: Dicarbonyls
Dicarboxylic acids
Hong Kong
Ketocarboxylic acids
Seasonal variations
Issue Date: 2006
Publisher: Pergamon Press
Source: Atmospheric environment, 2006, v. 40, no. 17, p. 3030-3040 How to cite?
Journal: Atmospheric environment 
Abstract: Homologous dicarboxylic acids (C 2-C 12), ketocarboxylic acids (ωC 2-ωC 9, pyruvic acid) and dicarbonyls (glyoxal and methylglyoxal) have been studied in the urban aerosol samples (PM 2.5) collected from the Hong Kong roadside atmosphere during winter and summer of 2003 using a capillary GC and GC-MS method. The concentrations of total dicarboxylic acids, ketocarboxylic acids, and α-dicarbonyls were higher in winter than in summer (except for some species like phthalic acid, Ph). Oxalic (C 2) acid was found as the most abundant species in summer, followed by Ph. Oxalic (C 2) acid was also found as the most abundant species in winter, but followed by malonic (C 3) acid. The C 2 diacid comprised 28-66% of the total diacid concentrations. The diacids with higher carbon numbers were less abundant, although C 9 diacid was relatively abundant (2%). Glyoxylic acid (ωC 2) and methylglyoxal were found as the most abundant ketocarboxylic acid and dicarbonyl in both seasons, respectively. The concentrations of the total diacids, total ketoacids and total dicarbonyls ranged from 224 to 1381 ng m -3, 10 to 89 ng m -3 and 5 to 21 ng m -3, respectively. Their relative abundances in PM 2.5 mass were 1.18%, 0.06% and 0.02%, respectively. High concentrations of toluene (winter: 33.8 μg m -3; summer: 41.3 μg m -3) and naphthalenes (winter: 1.2 μg m -3; summer: 1.9 μg m -3) observed were one possible source for the abundant phthalic and also methylmaleic acids detected.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10397/29377
ISSN: 1352-2310
EISSN: 1873-2844
DOI: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2005.11.069
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