Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/10397/29082
Title: Properties of “site error” of lightning direction-finder (DF) and its modeling
Authors: Chen, M 
Lu, T
Du, Y 
Keywords: Lightning location network
Direction finder
Site errors
Electromagnetic dipole
Issue Date: 2013
Publisher: Elsevier
Source: Atmospheric research, 2013, v. 129-130, p. 97-109 How to cite?
Journal: Atmospheric research 
Abstract: Lightning Location Network (LLN) based on time-of-arrival/direction-finder combined technique (TOA/DF) has been used world-widely for lightning warning and protection purpose. As long as the DF technique is involved in a LLN, it suffers from the “site error”. Firstly, based on experimental data, we have examined the properties of the “site error” as a function of the source azimuth. It is found that for a given DF, the “site error” as a function of source azimuth appears as a complicated sinusoidal waveform with a dominant cycle of either 360° or 180°. A different DF has a different “site error” pattern but this pattern is timely invariant unless the DF's site environment is changed. Secondly, with the magnetic field waveforms recorded by a broadband DF, the properties of the “site error” in frequency domain have been studied. It is found that for a given lightning stroke, the source azimuth determined by the ratio of amplitude of the spectra of magnetic fields from the two orthogonal magnetic loops of a DF varies significantly against the frequency. The source azimuth (or the “site error”) as a function of the frequency usually appears as a complicated curve with some mono-polar and bi-polar impulses superposed on a relative flat line. Thirdly, theoretical explanation and modeling of the “site error” have been attempted based on an electromagnetic dipole model. Simulations with the model show that the mono-polar impulsive fluctuations of the “site error” in frequency domain are due to the reflection of lightning incident signals on “electric-dipole-wise” structures nearby the DF, while the bi-polar ones are due to that of “magnetic-dipole-wise” structures. The model can well interpret the properties of the “site error” as a function of the source azimuth too. Furthermore, possible approaches for making “site error” corrections have been discussed.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10397/29082
ISSN: 0169-8095
EISSN: 1873-2895
DOI: 10.1016/j.atmosres.2012.09.003
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