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Title: Wheelchair martial arts practitioners have similar bone strength, sitting balance and self-esteem to healthy individuals
Authors: Fong, SS
Ng, SS 
Li, AO
Guo, X 
Keywords: Health
Martial arts
Self concept
Sports for persons with disabilities
Issue Date: 2014
Source: Physical therapy rehabilitation science, 2014, v. 3, no. 1, p. 27-32 How to cite?
Journal: Physical therapy rehabilitation science 
Abstract: Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the radial bone strength, sitting balance ability and global self-esteem of wheelchair martial arts practitioners and healthy control participants.
Design: Cross-sectional study.
Methods: Nine wheelchair martial art practitioners with physical disabilities and 28 able-bodied healthy individuals participated in the study. The bone strength of the distal radius was assessed using the Sunlight Mini-Omni Ultrasound Bone Sonometer; sitting balance was quantified using the modified functional reach test (with reference to a scale marked on the wall); and the self-administered Rosenberg self-esteem (RSE) scale was used to measure the global self-esteem of the participants. The velocity of the ultrasound wave (speed of sound, m/s) traveling through the outer surface of the radial bone was measured and was then converted into a T-score and a Z-score. These ultrasound T-score and Z-score that represent bone strength; the maximum forward reaching distance in sitting (cm) that represents sitting balance; and the RSE total self-esteem score that indicates global self-esteem were used for analysis.
Results: The results revealed that there were no statistically significant between-group differences for radial bone-strength, maximum forward reaching distance, or self-esteem outcomes.
Conclusions: The wheelchair martial arts practitioners had similar radial bone strength, sitting balance performance and self-esteem to able-bodied healthy persons. Our results imply that wheelchair martial arts might improve bone strength, postural control and self-esteem in adult wheelchair users. This new sport−wheelchair martial arts−might be an exercise option for people with physical disabilities.
ISSN: 2287-7576(print)
DOI: 10.14474/ptrs.2014.3.1.27
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