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Title: Glaucoma detection is facilitated by luminance modulation of the global flash multifocal electroretinogram
Authors: Chu, PHW
Chan, HHL 
Brown, B
Issue Date: 2006
Publisher: Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology
Source: Investigative ophthalmology and visual science, 2006, v. 47, no. 3, p. 929-937 How to cite?
Journal: Investigative ophthalmology and visual science 
Abstract: PURPOSE. To investigate the variation of retinal electrophysiological function in glaucoma by using the global flash multifocal electroretinogram (mfERG) stimulation with altered differences in the stimulus luminance of the multifocal flashes, in an attempt to alter the levels of inner retinal contributions. METHODS. The mfERG was assessed with a visual stimulus in steps of four video frames, which consisted of 103 scaled hexagonal elements followed by a dark frame, global flash, and dark frame. The localized luminance difference was set at 96%, 65%, 49%, or 29% stimulus contrast. Thirty subjects with glaucoma and 30 age-matched normal subjects were recruited for visual field and mfERG measurements. RESULTS. This stimulus induces complex local first-order responses with an early direct component (DC) and a later induced component (IC). The luminance-modulated response functions of the DC and IC responses showed markedly different behavior. The peripheral IC showed a linear dependence on luminance difference, whereas the peripheral DC was saturated for higher luminance differences. This saturation became less obvious in subjects with glaucoma, mostly because of greater reduction of the response amplitude in the mid luminance-difference level. An "adaptive index" was calculated from the luminance-difference dependence of the peripheral DC, and it showed a sensitivity of 93%, with a specificity of 95% for differentiating normal from glaucomatous eyes, and also had a significant correlation (r = 0.58) with the glaucomatous visual field defect. CONCLUSIONS. The peripheral DC luminance-modulated response function is altered by the adaptive mechanism that is induced by the global flash; the reduction of the adaptive index may thus relate to an abnormal adaptive mechanism, presumably due to inner retinal damage. Glaucoma appears to produce large reductions of the adaptive index which correlate with field defects.
ISSN: 0146-0404
EISSN: 1552-5783
DOI: 10.1167/iovs.05-0891
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