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Title: Mechanisms of peeling failures of bonds during ultrasonic wedge bonding
Authors: Xu, CH
Chan, HLW 
Cheung, YM
Liu, PCK
Keywords: Acoustic impedance
Al wire
Bonding pad metallization
Energy-dispersive spectroscopy
Scanning electron microscope
Ultrasonic bonding
Issue Date: 2004
Source: Materials and manufacturing processes, 2004, v. 19, no. 2, p. 329-339 How to cite?
Journal: Materials and Manufacturing Processes 
Abstract: The metallization of wire bonding pads on Si-based integrated circuits (ICs) contains Ti, TiN, and Al layers with vertical W-plugs located through the Ti and TiN layers. One percent Si-Al wire (32 μm in diameter) was bonded on the pads by an ultrasonic transducer using a wire bonding machine. Peeling failures occurred during the ultrasonic bonding process. The peeling fractures were examined using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) with an energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) system. The results showed that bonds peeled off from the interface between the Al layer and the top surface of the W-plugs or from the interface between the Si-base and the bottom surface of the W-plugs. The distribution of W-plugs also affected the bond peeling from the top or bottom surfaces of the W-plugs. Mechanisms giving rise to the peeling failure of bonds were analyzed based on the acoustic impedance of materials, which determined the amount of ultrasonic energy transmitted from one material to another. Two different paths of ultrasonic energy transmission occurred during the bonding process due to the different acoustic impedances of the materials. One is from the Al layer, through the TiN and Ti layers, to the IC. The other is from the Al layer, through the W-plugs, to the IC. The different distributions of ultrasonic energy at the positions with W-plugs and without W-plugs caused stress concentrations around the top or bottom surfaces of the W-plugs, which resulted in peeling failures of the bonds.
ISSN: 1042-6914
DOI: 10.1081/AMP-120029958
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