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Title: An outsider is always an outsider : migration, social policy and social exclusion in East Asia
Authors: Ngan, LLS
Chan, KW 
Keywords: Beijing
Cross-border migrants
East Asia
Hong Kong
Internal migrants
Labour policy
Low-skilled migrants
Social assistance
Social exclusion
Social policy
Social security
Social stratification
Issue Date: 2013
Publisher: Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group
Source: Journal of Comparative Asian Development, 2013, v. 12, no. 2, p. 316-350 How to cite?
Journal: Journal of comparative Asian development 
Abstract: The dynamics of social exclusion and inclusion of certain groups of citizens and migrant workers is a complex and multi-dimensional process, which is shaped by institutional frameworks as well as informal practices. While some of these frameworks are justified by economic rationality, migrants with low socio-economic background are often excluded from aspects of labour and social protection, therefore reinforcing hegemonic ideas about "insiderness" and "outsiderness". This paper argues that how readily government-enforced policies embrace migrants is crucial to the reinforcement of social stratification. Specifically, the article examines the immigration, labour and social security policies aimed at low-skilled migrant workers in Seoul and Taiwan, low-skilled cross-border migrants in Hong Kong and rural to urban migrants in Beijing. It highlights how policies veer towards the exclusionary when targeted towards low-income migrant groups from Southeast and East Asia, which manifest racial discrimination against them. The accumulation effect of their disadvantaged status has a detrimental impact on both migrant workers' quality of life and cohesion of society as a whole.
ISSN: 1533-9114
EISSN: 2150-5403
DOI: 10.1080/15339114.2013.801144
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