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Title: Speed profiles for improvement of maritime emission estimation
Authors: Yau, PS
Lee, SC 
Ho, KF
Keywords: container ship
Hong Kong
ship emissions
vessel speed
Issue Date: 2012
Publisher: Mary Ann Liebert Inc.
Source: Environmental engineering science, 2012, v. 29, no. 12, p. 1076-1084 How to cite?
Journal: Environmental engineering science 
Abstract: Maritime emissions play an important role in anthropogenic emissions, particularly for cities with busy ports such as Hong Kong. Ship emissions are strongly dependent on vessel speed, and thus accurate vessel speed is essential for maritime emission studies. In this study, we determined minute-by-minute high-resolution speed profiles of container ships on four major routes in Hong Kong waters using Automatic Identification System (AIS). The activity-based ship emissions of NOx, CO, HC, CO2, SO2, and PM10 were estimated using derived vessel speed profiles, and results were compared with those using the speed limits of control zones. Estimation using speed limits resulted in up to twofold overestimation of ship emissions. Compared with emissions estimated using the speed limits of control zones, emissions estimated using vessel speed profiles could provide results with up to 88% higher accuracy. Uncertainty analysis and sensitivity analysis of the model demonstrated the significance of improvement of vessel speed resolution. From spatial analysis, it is revealed that SO2 and PM10 emissions during maneuvering within 1 nautical mile from port were the highest. They contributed 7%-22% of SO2 emissions and 8%-17% of PM 10 emissions of the entire voyage in Hong Kong.
ISSN: 1092-8758
EISSN: 1557-9018
DOI: 10.1089/ees.2011.0399
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