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Title: Evaluation of two-dimensional and three-dimensional ultrasound in the assessment of thyroid volume of the indo-pacific bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops aduncus)
Authors: Kot, BCW
Ying, MTC 
Brook, FM
Kinoshita, RE
Issue Date: 2012
Source: Journal of zoo and wildlife medicine, 2012, v. 43, no. 1, p. 33-49
Abstract: The assessment of thyroid volume plays an indispensable role in the diagnosis and management of different thyroid diseases. The present study evaluates the accuracy of dolphin thyroid volume measurement as determined by four two-dimensional (2D) ultrasound methods (AD), with a standard of reference using three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound. The measurement accuracy for different recognized thyroid configuration is also evaluated. Inter- and intraoperator variability of the measurement methods was determined. Thyroid ultrasound examinations were conducted in 16 apparently healthy Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus) with 2D and 3D ultrasound under identical scanning conditions. All 2D ultrasound measurement methods yielded high accuracies (79.981.3%) when compared with the 3D ultrasound measurement, and had high measurement reproducibility (77.686.2%) and repeatability (78.199.7%). For 2D ultrasound measurements, Methods A and B were more accurate and reliable than Methods C and D, regardless of thyroid configuration. Ultrasound is useful in the measurement of thyroid volume in bottlenose dolphins. For the first time, a reliable ultrasound scanning protocol for measuring dolphin thyroid volume was developed, which provides a means to establish a normative reference for the diagnosis of thyroid pathologies and to monitor the thyroid volume during the course of treatment in living dolphins.
Keywords: 3D ultrasound
Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin
Thyroid volume measurement
Tursiops aduncus
Publisher: Amer Assoc Zoo Veterinarians
Journal: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 
ISSN: 1042-7260
DOI: 10.1638/2010-0190.1
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