Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/10397/23439
Title: The differential immunological activities of Ganoderma lucidum on human pre-cancerous uroepithelial cells
Authors: Yuen, JWM 
Gohel, MDI
Ng, CF
Keywords: Bladder cancer
Cytokines
Ganoderma lucidum
Immune
Uroepithelial cells
Issue Date: 2011
Publisher: Elsevier
Source: Journal of ethnopharmacology, 2011, v. 135, no. 3, p. 711-718 How to cite?
Journal: Journal of ethnopharmacology 
Abstract: Aims of the study: Ganoderma lucidum is active to stimulate immunological effector cells, but the effects on uroepithelial cells have never been explored. The present study compared the expression of major cytokines induced by the water (GLw) and ethanol (GLe) extracts of G. lucidum. Materials and Methods: The pre-cancerous human uroepithelial cell (HUC-PC) line was employed. A total of 15 cytokines, including major Th1/Th2 cytokines and chemokines, were measured in the complete media after 24 h incubation with GLw and GLe. Additionally, the following assays were performed: cytotoxicity, apoptosis, migration of neutrophils, and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) DNA binding activity. Results: GLe inhibited the growth of HUC-PC cells through apoptosis. Interleukins IL-2, IL-6, and IL-8 were significantly up-regulated by GLe in dose-dependent manners, but not by GLw. However, MCP-1 level was significantly increased by GLw but was oppositely reduced by GLe. Furthermore, the elevation of cytokine expression was correlated with the enhancement of p50/p65 NF-κB activity induced by GLe. The elevated IL-8 levels in GLe-treated cells were also correlated with the migration of neutrophils. Conclusions: GLe and GLw exhibited different immunological activities on the HUC-PC cells. In particular, the activities of GLe may favor the clearance of high risk urothelial cells, suggesting potent chemopreventive ingredients are extractable by ethanol from G. lucidum.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10397/23439
ISSN: 0378-8741
EISSN: 1872-7573
DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2011.04.005
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