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Title: Sonographic appearance of thyroid glands in patients treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy or conventional radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma
Authors: Cheng, SCH
Wu, VWC 
Kwong, DLW
Lui, CY
Cheng, ACK
Kot, BCW
Ying, MTC 
Keywords: Hypothyroidism
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma
Issue Date: 2015
Publisher: John Wiley and Sons Inc.
Source: Journal of clinical ultrasound, 2015, v. 43, no. 4, p. 210-223 How to cite?
Journal: Journal of Clinical Ultrasound 
Abstract: Background: This study aimed to investigate the sonographic appearances of the thyroid glands in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients whose cervical lymph nodes were treated with conventional radiotherapy (RT) or intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). The post-RT sonographic appearances of the thyroid glands in NPC patients were also correlated with the thyroid function. Methods: One hundred and three NPC patients who had completed RT of cervical lymph nodes using the anterior cervical field, 30 NPC patients who had completed RT of cervical lymph nodes using IMRT, and 61 healthy subjects were included in the study. Thyroid glands were sonographically assessed for their size, echogenicity, vascularity, and internal architecture. Thyroid function tests were also performed on each subject. Results: In comparison with the patients with abnormal thyroid function, the thyroid glands of the patients with normal thyroid function tended to be homogeneous and to have greater volume and echogenicity index (p<0.05). Compared with those of the healthy subjects, the thyroid glands of patients previously treated with IMRT and those treated with the anterior cervical field showed significantly lower thyroid volume, lower incidence and number of nodules, and higher vascularity index (p<0.05). Conclusions: The patient's history of previous RT should be taken into consideration in the sonographic examination of the thyroid gland post-RT.
ISSN: 0091-2751
DOI: 10.1002/jcu.22222
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