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Title: Engineering surveying for the construction of railway tunnels in Hong Kong
Authors: Lam, SYW
Chan, APC 
Issue Date: 2011
Publisher: Canadian Institute of Geomatics
Source: Geomatica, 2011, v. 65, no. 2, p. 167-174 How to cite?
Journal: Geomatica 
Abstract: This paper provides an overview of the accuracy standards, specifications, and recent advances of engineering survey operations for the design and construction of railway tunnels in Hong Kong. It covers geodetic control, deformation monitoring surveys, detail mapping, geometric modelling, setting-out, asbuilt surveys and total quality management (TQM). Recent advances include an integrative approach to: (1) combine measurements collected by geodetic and geotechnical systems including interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) in monitoring ground displacements and structural deformation at local and regional scales; (2) map geospatial data into computer aided design (CAD) formats and geographic information systems (GIS) by both conventional and mobile surveying systems; (3) collect as-built data of railway tracks and tunnels by positioning instruments, track sensors and laser scanners together; (4) incorporate Outsource Plan into the TQM system under ISO 9001:2008.
ISSN: 1195-1036
EISSN: 1925-4296
DOI: 10.5623/cig2011-025
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