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Title: On-board gaseous emissions of LPG taxis and estimation of taxi fleet emissions
Authors: Lau, J
Hung, WT 
Cheung, CS 
Keywords: Gaseous emission factors
LPG vehicles
On-board emission measurement
Vehicle fleet emission
Issue Date: 2011
Publisher: Elsevier
Source: Science of the total environment, 2011, v. 409, no. 24, p. 5292-5300 How to cite?
Journal: Science of the total environment 
Abstract: Instantaneous CO, NO, and HC emissions and exhaust flow rates from four LPG taxis, which adhered to Euro 2-4 emission standards, were measured using a sophisticated portable emission measurement system (PEMS). Instantaneous air/fuel ratios, emission rates, and emission factors at different operating modes were derived to explore the emission characteristics of these four taxis. Results show that gaseous emissions from these four taxis exceed emission standards, due to extended vehicle use and poor maintenance. NO emissions from newer taxis are lower whilst CO and HC emissions of the Euro 4 taxi are similar to those of Euro 2 taxis during idling and low speed travel. The taxis emit lower amounts of gaseous pollutants whilst idling and emit the highest amounts of CO and NO whilst accelerating. Large fluctuations in air/fuel ratios can be observed from the Euro 4 taxi during idling, indicating a malfunction of fuel supply control to the engine. Such fluctuations are not observed from the other taxis. This shows that a Euro 4 taxi is not necessarily cleaner than a Euro 3 taxi. Emission factors derived from on-board measurements are applied to estimate gaseous emissions from the taxi fleet; these results show that emissions are higher during peak hour traffic conditions. An estimate of the taxi fleet's emissions whilst the older taxis are replaced is also calculated. It can be seen that faster replacement of older taxis can lead to reductions in gaseous emissions from the taxi fleet. This study shows that the PEMS is an adequate tool for measuring emissions from LPG vehicles and that there is an urgent need to enforce emission standards on taxis. This study also shows that on-board measurements should be incorporated in the estimation of emissions from other vehicle types. This would result in better emission estimations under local traffic conditions.
ISSN: 0048-9697
EISSN: 1879-1026
DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2011.08.054
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