Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:
Title: Does vitamin D mediate the protective effects of time outdoors on myopia? Findings from a prospective birth cohort
Authors: Guggenheim, JA
Williams, C
Northstone, K
Howe, LD
Tilling, K
Pourcain, BS
McMahon, G
Lawlor, DA
Keywords: Epidemiology
Light levels
Refractive error
Vitamin D
Issue Date: 2014
Publisher: Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology
Source: Investigative ophthalmology and visual science, 2014, v. 55, no. 12, p. 8550-8558 How to cite?
Journal: Investigative ophthalmology and visual science 
Abstract: METHODS. We analyzed data for children participating in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) population-based birth cohort: noncycloplegic autorefraction at age 7 to 15 years; maternal report of time outdoors at age 8 years and serum vitamin D2 and D3 at age 10 years. A survival analysis hazard ratio (HR) for incident myopia was calculated for children spending a high- versus low-time outdoors, before and after controlling for vitamin D level (N ¼ 3677). RESULTS. Total vitamin D and D3, but not D2, levels were higher in children who spent more time outdoors (mean [95% confidence interval (CI)] vitamin D in nmol/L: Total, 60.0 [59.4-60.6] vs. 56.9 [55.0-58.8], P ¼ 0.001; D3, 55.4 [54.9-56.0] vs. 53.0 [51.3-54.9], P ¼ 0.014; D2, 5.7 [5.5-5.8] vs. 5.4 [5.1-5.8], P ¼ 0.23). In models including both time outdoors and sunlight-exposure-related vitamin D, there was no independent association between vitamin D and incident myopia (Total, HR ¼ 0.83 [0.66-1.04], P ¼ 0.11; D3, HR ¼ 0.89 [0.72-1.10], P ¼ 0.30), while time outdoors retained the same strong negative association with incident myopia as in unadjusted models (HR ¼ 0.69 [0.55-0.86], P ¼ 0.001).CONCLUSIONS. Total vitamin D and D3 were biomarkers for time spent outdoors, however there was no evidence they were independently associated with future myopia.PURPOSE. More time outdoors is associated with a lesser risk of myopia, but the underlying mechanism is unclear. We tested the hypothesis that 25-hydroxyvitamin D (vitamin D) mediates the protective effects of time outdoors against myopia.
ISSN: 0146-0404
EISSN: 1552-5783
DOI: 10.1167/iovs.14-15839
Appears in Collections:Journal/Magazine Article

View full-text via PolyU eLinks SFX Query
Show full item record


Last Week
Last month
Citations as of Nov 1, 2018


Last Week
Last month
Citations as of Nov 14, 2018

Page view(s)

Last Week
Last month
Citations as of Nov 12, 2018

Google ScholarTM



Items in DSpace are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.