Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/10397/20780
Title: Does vitamin D mediate the protective effects of time outdoors on myopia? Findings from a prospective birth cohort
Authors: Guggenheim, JA
Williams, C
Northstone, K
Howe, LD
Tilling, K
Pourcain, BS
McMahon, G
Lawlor, DA
Keywords: Epidemiology
Light levels
Myopia
Refractive error
Vitamin D
Issue Date: 2014
Publisher: Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology
Source: Investigative ophthalmology and visual science, 2014, v. 55, no. 12, p. 8550-8558 How to cite?
Journal: Investigative ophthalmology and visual science 
Abstract: METHODS. We analyzed data for children participating in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) population-based birth cohort: noncycloplegic autorefraction at age 7 to 15 years; maternal report of time outdoors at age 8 years and serum vitamin D2 and D3 at age 10 years. A survival analysis hazard ratio (HR) for incident myopia was calculated for children spending a high- versus low-time outdoors, before and after controlling for vitamin D level (N ¼ 3677). RESULTS. Total vitamin D and D3, but not D2, levels were higher in children who spent more time outdoors (mean [95% confidence interval (CI)] vitamin D in nmol/L: Total, 60.0 [59.4-60.6] vs. 56.9 [55.0-58.8], P ¼ 0.001; D3, 55.4 [54.9-56.0] vs. 53.0 [51.3-54.9], P ¼ 0.014; D2, 5.7 [5.5-5.8] vs. 5.4 [5.1-5.8], P ¼ 0.23). In models including both time outdoors and sunlight-exposure-related vitamin D, there was no independent association between vitamin D and incident myopia (Total, HR ¼ 0.83 [0.66-1.04], P ¼ 0.11; D3, HR ¼ 0.89 [0.72-1.10], P ¼ 0.30), while time outdoors retained the same strong negative association with incident myopia as in unadjusted models (HR ¼ 0.69 [0.55-0.86], P ¼ 0.001).CONCLUSIONS. Total vitamin D and D3 were biomarkers for time spent outdoors, however there was no evidence they were independently associated with future myopia.PURPOSE. More time outdoors is associated with a lesser risk of myopia, but the underlying mechanism is unclear. We tested the hypothesis that 25-hydroxyvitamin D (vitamin D) mediates the protective effects of time outdoors against myopia.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10397/20780
ISSN: 0146-0404
EISSN: 1552-5783
DOI: 10.1167/iovs.14-15839
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