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Title: Statistical Modeling Uncertainties of Three-dimensional GIS Features
Authors: Shi, W 
Issue Date: 1997
Source: Cartography and geographic information science, 1997, v. 24, no. 1, p. 21-26 How to cite?
Journal: Cartography and Geographic Information Science 
Abstract: This article presents a newly developed statistical approach for modeling positional uncertainties of geometric features in three-dimensional geographical information systems (GIS). These features include points, line segments and linear features. The developed approach provides a confidence volume model for each feature type. The true locations of these measured features are included within these volumes with probability larger than a pre-defined confidence level. With the assumptions that positional errors of the two endpoints are independent and follow two three-dimensional normal distributions, the error of any point on the line segment is derived and described by the distribution of the point. The confidence volume model of a line segment is hence derived. Based on this model, the confidence volume model of linear features is further derived.
ISSN: 1523-0406
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