Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/10397/18439
Title: Contribution of ship emissions to the fine particulate in the community near an international port in Hong Kong
Authors: Yau, PS
Lee, SC 
Cheng, Y
Huang, Y
Lai, SC
Xu, XH
Keywords: Container port
Fine particulate
PMF
Ship emission
Source apportionment
Issue Date: 2013
Publisher: Elsevier
Source: Atmospheric research, 2013, v. 124, p. 61-72 How to cite?
Journal: Atmospheric research 
Abstract: Fine particulates from ship exhaust are proved to be harmful to human health. To better understand the impact of ship emissions on the particulate matter (PM) level of port-side residential areas, fine particulates (PM2.5) were collected near Kwai Chung and Tsing Yi Container Terminals (KTCT) in Hong Kong during August 2009 to March 2010. The average PM2.5 concentration was 30.5μg/m3. The contribution of ship emissions on fine particulates near the container port was demonstrated by source apportionment. By positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis, eight potential sources, i.e., residual oil (RO) combustion, marine diesel oil (MDO) combustion, vehicle emission, coal combustion, incineration, crustal and sea-salt, secondary sulfate and secondary nitrate were identified. Among the identified sources, RO combustion and MDO combustion were regarded as ship emissions and accounted for 12% and 7% of PM2.5 respectively. An estimate of 1.8μg/m3 (6%) of secondary sulfate corresponded to 3.6μg/m3 of primary fine particulates from RO combustion. Together with primary PM emitted from ships, the total ambient PM2.5 mass associated with ship emissions at the sampling site was 7.6μg/m3 (25%).
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10397/18439
ISSN: 0169-8095
EISSN: 1873-2895
DOI: 10.1016/j.atmosres.2012.12.009
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