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Title: Detecting diabetes mellitus and nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy using tongue color, texture, and geometry features
Authors: Zhang, B
Vijaya Kumar, KBV
Zhang, D 
Keywords: Diabetes mellitus (DM) detection
Nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR) detection
Tongue color features
Tongue geometry features
Tongue texture features
Issue Date: 2014
Publisher: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
Source: IEEE transactions on biomedical engineering, 2014, v. 61, no. 2, 6603314, p. 491-501 How to cite?
Journal: IEEE transactions on biomedical engineering 
Abstract: Diabetes mellitus (DM) and its complications leading to diabetic retinopathy (DR) are soon to become one of the 21st century's major health problems. This represents a huge financial burden to healthcare officials and governments. To combat this approaching epidemic, this paper proposes a noninvasive method to detect DM and nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR), the initial stage of DR based on three groups of features extracted from tongue images. They include color, texture, and geometry. A noninvasive capture device with image correction first captures the tongue images. A tongue color gamut is established with 12 colors representing the tongue color features. The texture values of eight blocks strategically located on the tongue surface, with the additional mean of all eight blocks are used to characterize the nine tongue texture features. Finally, 13 features extracted from tongue images based on measurements, distances, areas, and their ratios represent the geometry features. Applying a combination of the 34 features, the proposed method can separate Healthy/DM tongues as well as NPDR/DM-sans NPDR (DM samples without NPDR) tongues using features from each of the three groups with average accuracies of 80.52% and 80.33%, respectively. This is on a database consisting of 130 Healthy and 296 DM samples, where 29 of those in DM are NPDR.
ISSN: 0018-9294
EISSN: 1558-2531
DOI: 10.1109/TBME.2013.2282625
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