Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/10397/16688
Title: Effects of ion beam bombardment on electrochromic tungsten oxide films studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Rutherford back-scattering
Authors: Wong, HY
Ong, CW 
Kwok, RWM
Wong, KW
Wong, SP
Cheung, WY
Issue Date: 2000
Publisher: Elsevier
Source: Thin solid films, 2000, v. 376, no. 1-2, p. 131-139 How to cite?
Journal: Thin solid films 
Abstract: The effect of ion bombardment on thermally evaporated and magnetron sputtered tungsten oxide films were investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Results show that irrespective of the porosity and crystallinity of the film samples formed with different techniques and conditions, ion bombardment induced preferential sputtering of oxygen, resulting in a decrease of oxygen/tungsten (O/W) ratio with increasing sputtering time. Samples experienced electrochromic switching cycles also show the same effect, except that a higher O/W ratio is detected because the tungsten oxide film reacts with the LiClO 4-propylene carbonate electrolyte. Angle-resolved XPS experiments further confirm preferential sputtering of oxygen, suggesting that ion beam sputtering used in XPS for pre-cleaning and depth profile analysis of tungsten oxide must be used with caution. Rutherford back-scattering gives more reliable composition data of tungsten oxide, since it does not involve any sputtering process.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10397/16688
ISSN: 0040-6090
EISSN: 1879-2731
DOI: 10.1016/S0040-6090(00)01204-9
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