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Title: Template-free fabrication and growth mechanism of uniform (BiO) 2CO3 hierarchical hollow microspheres with outstanding photocatalytic activities under both UV and visible light irradiation
Authors: Dong, F
Ho, WK
Lee, SC 
Wu, Z
Fu, M
Zou, S
Huang, Y
Issue Date: 2011
Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry
Source: Journal of materials chemistry, 2011, v. 21, no. 33, p. 12428-12436 How to cite?
Journal: Journal of materials chemistry 
Abstract: The morphology-controlled fabrication of nano-/microstructured functional materials has opened up new possibilities to enhance their physical and chemical properties and remains a great challenge. This work represents a one-pot template-free fabrication and growth mechanism of novel rose-like uniform (BiO)2CO3 hierarchical hollow microspheres, which are self-assembled by single-crystal nanosheets. The observation of time-dependent evolution of crystal structure and morphology revealed that the growth mechanism of such a novel structure might involve a unique multistep pathway. First, an amorphous particle was formed during a nucleation and aggregation process. Then, the intermediate (BiO)4CO3(OH)2 of embryonic stacked buds with attached particles were produced due to Ostwald ripening. The driving force for the formation of such embryonic structure is the intrinsic dipole field introduced by the nanosheets as a result of selective adsorption of the citrate ions on some polar surfaces of the nanoparticles. Subsequently, all the particles were consumed and (BiO)4CO3(OH)2 crystals started to transform to (BiO)2CO3 phase by means of repeated reaction-dissolution-recrystallization process in a homocentric layer-by-layer growth style, where carbonate ions substituted OH- groups. Monodisperse buds were then generated and the size of the hollow in the center becomes smaller to reduce surface energy. Finally, all (BiO) 4CO3(OH)2 transformed to (BiO) 2CO3 phase and uniform monodisperse (BiO) 2CO3 roses were produced through layers splitting driven by the OH- group deintercalating from the interlayer spaces of (BiO)4CO3(OH)2. More interestingly, the novel (BiO)2CO3 microspheres exhibited outstanding activities under both UV and visible light irradiation for indoor NO removal, far exceeding that of commercial P25, synthetic C-doped TiO2 and (BiO) 2CO3 with particle morphology due to the special hierarchical morphology and band gap structure.
ISSN: 0959-9428
EISSN: 1364-5501
DOI: 10.1039/c1jm11840d
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