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Title: Combining Landsat TM/ETM+ and HJ-1 A/B CCD Sensors for Monitoring Coastal Water Quality in Hong Kong
Authors: Nazeer, M
Nichol, JE 
Issue Date: 2015
Source: IEEE geoscience and remote sensing letters, 2015, v. 12, no. 9, p. 1898-1902
Abstract: High suspended solid (SS) concentrations in coastal waters are aesthetically undesirable, and adversely affect fisheries and coastal ecosystems. Environmental agencies usually require frequent measurements of SS over coastal regions at a spatially detailed level for water quality assessment and control. To develop a method for SS estimation in the complex coastal waters of Hong Kong, an archive of 57 Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM), Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+), and HJ-1 A/B Charged Couple Device (CCD) images over a 13-year period from January 2000 to December 2012 was used. Atmospherically corrected Landsat TM/ETM+ and HJ-1 A/B CCD bands 1-4 along with 240 in situ field samples of SS concentration collected within 2 h of image acquisition, were used to develop and validate regression models over a wide range of SS concentrations from 0.5-56.0 mg/L. The best representation of actual SS concentrations was given by the log-transformed combination of Band 2 (Green, 0.52-0.60 μm) and Band 3 (Red, 0.63-0.69 μm), with correlation coefficient (R) of 0.85, root-mean-square error of 2.60 mg/L and mean absolute error of 2.04 mg/L. This is attributed to the sensitivity of SS to green and red wavelengths specific to the characteristic refractive index and grain size of SS found in Hong Kong waters. This letter is considered more robust than previous studies, due to the much larger number of images and in situ samples used for model development and validation, as well as the different times of year and wide range of SS concentrations investigated.
Keywords: Coastal water
HJ-1 A/B
Hong Kong
Surface reflectance (SR)
Suspended solids (SS)
Water quality
Publisher: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
Journal: IEEE geoscience and remote sensing letters 
ISSN: 1545-598X
DOI: 10.1109/LGRS.2015.2436899
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