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Title: Demand analysis for residential water supply systems in Hong Kong
Authors: Wong, LT 
Liu, WY
Keywords: Demand units
Residential buildings
Water supply
Issue Date: 2008
Publisher: Hong Kong Institution of Engineers
Source: HKIE transactions, 2008, v. 15, no. 2, p. 24-28 How to cite?
Journal: HKIE transactions 
Abstract: Accurate estimates of probable maximum simultaneous demand are essential for sizing the water supply plants and piping systems of high-rise residential buildings cost-effectively and eco-efficiently. This paper surveyed the water usage patterns through face-to-face interviews and simple on site measurements from some typical high-rise residential buildings in Hong Kong and investigated the probable maximum demands of domestic appliances in terms of fixture units determined at an allowable failure rate of 1% of the peak hourly demands. The fixture units of a WC, a washbasin, a shower, a kitchen sink and a 5 L washing machine were quantified and compared with the current design values. The results showed that the latter must be reviewed. This study hence provides a useful source of reference for the optimisation of water supply and piping systems in high-rise residential buildings.
ISSN: 1023-697X
EISSN: 2326-3733
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