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Title: Direct quadrature method of moments for the exhaust particle formation and evolution in the wake of the studied ground vehicle
Authors: Chan, TL 
Liu, YH
Chan, CK 
Keywords: Aerosol dynamics and dispersion model
Direct quadrature method of moments (DQMOM)
Large eddy simulation (LES)
Vehicular exhaust jet particles
Wake region
Issue Date: 2010
Publisher: Elsevier Sci Ltd
Source: Journal of aerosol science, 2010, v. 41, no. 6, p. 553-568 How to cite?
Journal: Journal of Aerosol Science 
Abstract: In the present study, the particle formation and evolution processes, and concentration field in the wake region of the studied ground vehicle for stationary (i.e., low idling mode) and moving (i.e., 10 and 30. km/h modes) conditions in a typical high densely urban road microenvironment were investigated numerically using large eddy simulation (LES) with the aerosol dynamics and dispersion model based on the direct quadrature method of moments (DQMOM) approach. The turbulent dilution and dispersion characteristics, and the complex formation and growth dynamics of exhaust particles behind the studied ground vehicle to the atmosphere were taken into consideration. The results show that the processes of nucleation and coagulation are completed in a short distance away from the vehicular exhaust tailpipe exit of the studied ground vehicle. Due to the nucleation, coagulation and strong dilution by the turbulent exhaust plume that take place behind the studied ground vehicle, the characteristics and behavior of the average diameter, and the number and volume concentration of the particles are quite different with respect to the studied driving conditions.
DOI: 10.1016/j.jaerosci.2010.03.005
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